The present indigenous population of the Central Chaco is 26.780 persons. It comprises approx. nine different ethnic groups Numerically predominate the Enlhet and the Nivaclé, who together represent two thirds of the indigenous population. The other ethnic groups are: Ayoreo, Sanapaná, Toba-Maskoy, Guaraní-Ñandeva, Guarayo, Angaité and Manjuy, all of them immigrant groups from other Chaco areas.
The natural growth of the indigenous population of the region fluctuated at around 3.5% during the last years. Deducting from this number an average death rate of 1% the result is a netto growth of 2.5% per year. The population growth of the Central Chaco, however, has been higher, because of a persistent flow of transmigrants from the Pilcomayo region in search of better social and economic conditions. The migration rate is therefore respo0nsible for an additional annual increase of population of 1-2% for the Central Chac region.
With regard to other Neoamerican ethnic groups of the Central Chaco, the indigenous population represents approx. 52% of the total, while the German-Paraguayans with 32% are the smallest minority, followed by the Latin-Paraguayans with an estimated 11%. The remaining 5% are Braziguayans, Argentines and various others.